Neurospine Hospital & Revive Critical Care

Opening Time

24 Hours

For Appointments

0712-2995761, 2995762, 9021721336

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

A Myocardial infarction(heart attack ) is a deadly medical emergency where your heart muscle begins to die because it isn’t getting enough blood flow. A blockage in the arteries that supply blood to your heart usually causes this. If a healthcare provider doesn’t restore blood flow quickly, a heart attack can cause permanent heart damage and death.

This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. A blockage can develop due to a buildup of plaque, a substance mostly made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products or due to a sudden blood clot that forms on the blockage.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Squeezing pain, heaviness, tightness, pressure in center of chest
  • Pain that spreads to your back, left arm, jaw, neck
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness, weakness
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Sweating
  • Feeling of doom

Causes

Heart attacks happen when an artery supplying your heart with blood becomes blocked. Without blood, the heart does not get enough oxygen and cells in the heart start to die.

  • High blood pressure
  • Elevated LDL (bad) cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Inflammation

Traetment

Heart attacks require immediate treatment, so most treatments begin in the emergency room. Treatment may include taking medications to resolve blood clots, reduce pain, or slow down your heart rate.

During the procedure, your surgeon will insert a long, thin tube called a catheter through your artery to reach the blockage. They will then inflate a small balloon attached to the catheter in order to reopen the artery, allowing blood flow to resume.

Your surgeon may also place a small, mesh tube called a stent at the site of the blockage. The stent can prevent the artery from closing again. A number of different medications can also be used to treat a heart attack:

  • Blood thinners, such as aspirin, are often used to break up blood clots and improve blood flow through narrowed arteries.
  • Nitroglycerin can be used to widen your blood vessels.

Risk Factors

The following risk factors increase your chances of developing atherosclerosis:

  • Age
  • Gender (men are at higher risk than women)
  • Smoking
  • High-fat diet
  • High LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglycerides (fats in the blood)
  • Lack of exercise
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Family history of heart attack
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Stress

Diagnosis

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). The first test done to check for a heart attack. You may be hooked up to a monitor even as the doctor is asking you questions. An ECG measures electrical activity of your heart.
  • Blood tests. Your doctor may look for certain enzymes that are released into your blood when you have a heart attack.

Other tests include:

  • Chest x-ray
  • Echocardiogram (uses sound waves to take a picture of your heart)
  • Coronary catheterization or angiogram (uses a liquid dye inserted through a catheter to see whether your arteries are blocked)
  • Stress test

Preventive Care

  • Stopping smoking.
  • Eating a diet low in saturated fat and rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Losing weight or maintaining a proper weight.

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